Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Human Development

I just had my last human development class last week. It was a lot of reading, hard tests, long classes and a couple difficult papers packed into the six weeks, but it was worth it because I also learned a lot. My teacher was Larry Nelson, and I think that he just has to be the best teacher for this subject. He shared a lot of personal experiences which really helped the concepts tie into real life, but what I liked most of all is that he tried to get us to think critically. He challenged our perceptions and opinions so that we would understand why we felt certain ways, and if it was for the right reasons. It was a really good class and I learned a lot of interesting things. Here are some of my favorite things that I learned in class:

1. Divine worth means that we are all sons and daughters of God with the potential to become like him. This does not EVER change. Worthiness can change, but worth cannot.

2. Self-esteem is our distorted view of divine worth.

3. Children think lovable = worth being loved. They need to know that their parents love them no matter what. The most important things to focus on are their effort, progress and process.

4. Emotions are physical feelings that come with a physical body. If you think about it, this probably means that we didn't really feel emotions before we came to earth because we couldn't feel anything physically without a body.

5. Play is the most important thing that a child should be engaged in. The greatest amount of cognitive, emotional and social knowledge will come with play. These different types of play are:
Functional play - Simple, repetitive motor movements with or without object.
Constructional play - Creating or constructing something.
Make-believe (pretend) play - Acting out everyday and imaginary roles.
Games with rules - Understanding and following rules in play activities.

6. Instead of teaching children to have masculine or feminine characteristics, we should be teaching them to have Christlike characteristics. THEN they will be "socially competent".

7. Temperament is a physiological response, not a behavioral response. The behavior is what follows the physiological feeling.

8. Shyness is also physiological, not behavioral. The behavior of acting shy is what follows the physiological feeling. A person born shy will always experience higher levels of cortisol and stress. Anything they do to decrease this masks their shyness as a physiological response, but if they are born with it, it is always going to be there.

9. The different parenting styles are authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, uninvolved and oversolicitous.

Authoritative parenting - A parenting style that is demanding and responsive. A rational, democratic approach, in which both parents' and childrens' rights are respected.
Includes:
- Make reasonable demands for maturity
- Enforce them by setting limits and insisting on obedience
- Express warmth and affection and responsiveness
- Listen patiently to child's point of view
- Encourage participation in family decision making
- Inductive reasoning (e.g., reasoning about consequences of actions to self and to others)
- Good natured/easy going
- Involved in child's life (school, homework, activities, etc.)

Outcomes of authoritative parenting:
- Lively happy mood
- High self-esteem and self control
- Less traditional gender role behavior
- Social and moral maturity
- Academic achievement and educational attainment
- Perspective taking skills
- Consequential thinking
- Friendly assertive sociable behavior
- Peer acceptance
- Emotion regulation
- Lower levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors
- Better communication skills

Permissive parenting - A parenting style that is responsive but undemanding. An overly tolerant approach to child rearing.
Includes:
- Nurturing and accepting, but avoids making demands or imposing controls
- Complete independence in decision making

Outcomes of permissive parenting:
- Impulsive
- Disobedient
- Rebellious
- Demanding
- Dependent on adults
- Poor persistence at tasks
- Poor self control and school performance
- Delinquency
- Drug use

Authoritarian parenting - A parenting style that is demanding but low in responsiveness to children's rights and needs. Conformity and obedience valued over open communication.
Includes:
- Very little give and take
- Cold, harsh, unresponsive, even rejecting
- Parent centered
- Forceful
- Physical punishment (spanking)

Outcomes of authoritarian parenting:
- Anxious, withdrawn and unhappy mood
- Hostile and angry when frustrated (emotional dysregulation)
- More misattributions of hostile intent
- Fewer social strategies
- Externalizing disorders (e.g., aggressive, disruptive, etc.)
- Peer rejection
- Lower communication competence

Oversolicitous- a parenting style that is over protective and over controlling.
Includes:
- Not allowing children to make decisions for themselves
- Not allowing children to try new things

Outcomes of oversolcitous parenting:
- Anxiety
- Social fearfulness
- Social withdrawal
- Negative self-regard
- Peer rejections

As I'm sure is obvious, authoritative is the best parenting style.

10. Spanking: Places your child at risk for all of the things on authoritarian list. It does not benefit the child, and also doesn't improve behavior unless you only want your child to obey you in your presence.
Spanking destroys the atmosphere of the home.


And now here are some pictures from my textbook.

First of all, here is the cover of the book.



Take a closer look at the picture on it.

I think it is strange.
And this is what I wonder. Why is the shark in an open pool? Why does the girl in the front have her hand up in that position? Is she about to stick it in the fish tank? Why does the woman in the back in the orange shirt have a mustache?


These pictures are just funny and make me laugh. And the captions too.











Except this one makes me sad.



And the little girl in the picture looks like Craig's niece.



These are pictures of things that are just interesting and informative.











This one is mostly just funny



And last of all, here are two quotes we read in class that I liked.


"Charity given out of duty, without expectation of return, at the proper time and place, and to a worthy person is considered to be in the mode of goodness." -Bhagavad Gita

"Ethics, too, are nothing but reverence for life. That is what gives me the fundamental principle of morality, namely, the good consists in maintaining, promoting, and enhancing life and that destroying, injuring and limiting life are evil." -Albert Schweitzer